Abstract

A thin film transistor including an oxide semiconductor with favorable electrical characteristics is provided. The thin film transistor includes a gate electrode provided over a substrate, a gate insulating film provided over the gate electrode, an oxide semiconductor film provided over the gate electrode and on the gate insulating film, a metal oxide film provided on the oxide semiconductor film, and a metal film provided on the metal oxide film. The oxide semiconductor film is in contact with the metal oxide film, and includes a region whose concentration of metal is higher than that of any other region in the oxide semiconductor film (a high metal concentration region). In the high metal concentration region, the metal contained in the oxide semiconductor film may be present as a crystal grain or a microcrystal.

Claims

1 . A transistor comprising: a gate electrode; a gate insulating film adjacent to the gate electrode; an oxide semiconductor film adjacent to the gate electrode with the gate insulating film interposed therebetween; a titanium oxide film formed on the oxide semiconductor film; and a titanium film formed on the titanium oxide film, wherein the oxide semiconductor film contains at least one of indium, gallium, and zinc. 2 . The transistor according to claim 1 , wherein a type of the transistor is a bottom gate type. 3 . The transistor according to claim 1 , wherein the oxide semiconductor film comprises In—Ga—Zn—O-based oxide semiconductor. 4 . The transistor according to claim 1 , wherein a concentration of hydrogen in the oxide semiconductor film is less than 5×10 16 /cm 3 . 5 . The transistor according to claim 1 , wherein a carrier density of the oxide semiconductor film is 5×10 10 /cm 3 or less. 6 . The transistor according to claim 1 , wherein the titanium oxide film is formed by a heat treatment, and wherein the heat treatment is performed after the titanium film is formed. 7 . A transistor comprising: a gate electrode; a gate insulating film adjacent to the gate electrode; an oxide semiconductor film adjacent to the gate electrode with the gate insulating film interposed therebetween; and a titanium film formed over the oxide semiconductor film, wherein the oxide semiconductor film contains at least one of indium, gallium, and zinc, wherein the oxide semiconductor film includes a high metal concentration region, and wherein a concentration of any one of indium, gallium and zinc in the high metal concentration region is higher than a concentration thereof in any other region in the oxide semiconductor film. 8 . The transistor according to claim 7 , wherein a type of the transistor is a bottom gate type. 9 . The transistor according to claim 7 , wherein the oxide semiconductor film comprises In—Ga—Zn—O-based oxide semiconductor. 10 . The transistor according to claim 7 , wherein indium in the high metal concentration region is present as a crystal grain or a microcrystal. 11 . The transistor according to claim 7 , wherein a concentration of hydrogen in the oxide semiconductor film is less than 5×10 16 /cm 3 . 12 . The transistor according to claim 7 , wherein a carrier density of the oxide semiconductor film is 5×10 30 /cm 3 or less. 13 . The transistor according to claim 7 , wherein the high metal concentration region is formed by a heat treatment, and wherein the heat treatment is performed after the titanium film is formed. 14 . A transistor comprising: a gate electrode; a gate insulating film adjacent to the gate electrode; an oxide semiconductor film adjacent to the gate electrode with the gate insulating film interposed therebetween; a titanium oxide film formed on the oxide semiconductor film; and a titanium film formed on the titanium oxide film, wherein the oxide semiconductor film contains at least one of indium, gallium, and zinc, wherein the oxide semiconductor film includes a high metal concentration region, wherein the high metal concentration region is in contact with the titanium oxide film, and wherein a concentration of any one of indium, gallium and zinc in the high metal concentration region is higher than a concentration thereof in any other region in the oxide semiconductor film. 15 . The transistor according to claim 14 , wherein a type of the transistor is a bottom gate type. 16 . The transistor according to claim 14 , wherein the oxide semiconductor film comprises In—Ga—Zn—O-based oxide semiconductor. 17 . The transistor according to claim 14 , wherein indium in the high metal concentration region is present as a crystal grain or a microcrystal. 18 . The transistor according to claim 14 , wherein a concentration of hydrogen in the oxide semiconductor film is less than 5×10 16 /cm 3 . 19 . The transistor according to claim 14 , wherein a carrier density of the oxide semiconductor film is 5×10 10 /cm 3 or less. 20 . The transistor according to claim 14 , wherein the high metal concentration region is formed by a heat treatment, and wherein the heat treatment is performed after the titanium film is formed. 21 . The transistor according to claim 14 , wherein the titanium oxide film is formed by a heat treatment, and wherein the heat treatment is performed after the titanium film is formed.
TECHNICAL FIELD [0001] The technical field relates to a thin film transistor including an oxide semiconductor. BACKGROUND ART [0002] In recent years, metal oxide having semiconductor characteristics which is referred to as an oxide semiconductor has attracted attention as a novel semiconductor material which has both high mobility, which is a characteristic of polysilicon, and uniform element characteristics, which is a characteristic of amorphous silicon. Examples of the metal oxide having semiconductor characteristics are tungsten oxide, tin oxide, indium oxide, zinc oxide, and the like. [0003] Patent Documents 1 and 2 have proposed a thin film transistor in which metal oxide having semiconductor characteristics is used for a channel formation region. REFERENCE [0000] [Patent Document 1] Japanese Published Patent Application No. 2007-123861 [Patent Document 2] Japanese Published Patent Application No. 2007-96055 DISCLOSURE OF INVENTION [0006] It is an object to provide a thin film transistor including an oxide semiconductor with favorable electrical characteristics. [0007] According to one embodiment of the present invention, a thin film transistor includes a gate electrode formed over a substrate, a gate insulating film formed over the gate electrode, an oxide semiconductor film formed over the gate electrode and on the gate insulating film, a metal oxide film formed on the oxide semiconductor film, and a metal film formed on the metal oxide film. The oxide semiconductor film is in contact with the metal oxide film, and includes a region whose metal concentration is higher than that in any other region in the oxide semiconductor film (a high metal concentration region). [0008] In the high metal concentration region, metal contained in the oxide semiconductor film may be present as a crystal grain or a microcrystal. [0009] According to another embodiment of the present invention, a thin film transistor includes a gate electrode formed over a substrate, a gate insulating film formed over the gate electrode, an oxide semiconductor film containing indium, gallium, and zinc, which is formed over the gate electrode and on the gate insulating film, a titanium oxide film formed on the oxide semiconductor film, and a titanium film formed on the titanium oxide film. The oxide semiconductor film is in contact with the titanium oxide film, and includes a region whose concentration of indium is higher than that in any other region in the oxide semiconductor film. [0010] In the region whose concentration of indium is higher than that in any other region in the oxide semiconductor film, indium may be present as a crystal grain or a microcrystal. [0011] A thin film transistor including an oxide semiconductor with favorable electrical characteristics can be provided. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS [0012] In the accompanying drawings: [0013] FIGS. 1A and 1B show cross sectional schematic views of a thin film transistor including an oxide semiconductor; [0014] FIG. 2 shows an energy band diagram between a source electrode and a drain electrode of a thin film transistor including an oxide semiconductor; [0015] FIGS. 3A to 3C show crystal structures of metal and oxygen in an In—Ga—Zn—O-based oxide semiconductor; [0016] FIGS. 4A and 4B show diagrams each illustrating a structural model; [0017] FIGS. 5A and 5B show diagrams each illustrating a structural model; [0018] FIGS. 6A and 6B show diagrams each illustrating a structural model; [0019] FIG. 7A shows a graph illustrating C-V characteristics of Sample 1, and FIG. 7B shows a graph illustrating a relation between gate voltage (Vg) and (1/C) 2 of Sample 1; [0020] FIG. 8A shows a graph illustrating C-V characteristics of Sample 2, and FIG. 8B shows a graph illustrating a relation between gate voltage (Vg) and (1/C) 2 of Sample 2; [0021] FIG. 9 shows a crystal structure of titanium dioxide having a rutile structure; [0022] FIG. 10 shows a state density of titanium dioxide having a rutile structure; [0023] FIG. 11 shows a state density of titanium dioxide having a rutile structure in an oxygen-deficient state; [0024] FIG. 12 shows a state density of titanium monoxide; [0025] FIGS. 13A and 13B each illustrate an electronic device to which a thin film transistor is applied; and [0026] FIG. 14 is a TEM photograph of a thin film transistor including an In—Ga—Zn—O-based oxide semiconductor. BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION [0027] Embodiments of the invention are described below with reference to the drawings. Note that the invention is not limited to the following description, and those skilled in the art can easily understand that modes and details of the invention can be changed in various ways without departing from the purpose and the scope of the invention. Therefore, it should be noted that the present invention should not be interpreted as being limited to the following description of the embodiments. Embodiment 1 [0028] FIG. 1A is a cross sectional schematic view of a thin film transistor including an oxide semiconductor. This thin film transistor is formed using a substrate 10 , a gate electrode 20 , a gate insulating film 30 , an oxide semiconductor film 40 , a metal oxide film 60 , a metal film 70 , and an insulating film 80 . [0029] The thin film transistor shown in FIG. 1A has a bottom gate type with a channel-etched structure. Note that the type and structure of the thin film transistor is not limited to this, and a top gate type, a bottom gate type, and the like can be used as appropriate. [0030] As the substrate 10 , a substrate having an insulating surface is used. It is appropriate that a glass substrate is used as the substrate 10 . If the subsequent thermal treatment is performed at a high temperature, a glass substrate whose strain point is 730° C. or higher may be used. In addition, from the viewpoint of heat resistance, a glass substrate which contains more barium oxide (BaO) than boric acid (B 2 O 3 ) is preferably used. [0031] A substrate formed using an insulator such as a ceramic substrate, a quartz glass substrate, a quartz substrate, or a sapphire substrate may also be used as the substrate 10 instead of the glass substrate. Alternatively, a crystallized glass substrate or the like may be used as the substrate 10 . [0032] Additionally, an insulating film serving as a base film may be provided between the substrate 10 and the gate electrode 20 . The base film has a function of preventing diffusion of an impurity element from the substrate 10 . Note that the insulating film to be the base film may be formed using any one or more of films selected from a silicon nitride film, a silicon oxide film, a silicon nitride oxide film, and a silicon oxynitride film. [0033] A metal conductive film can be used as the gate electrode 20 . For a material of the metal conductive film, an element selected from aluminum (Al), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), tantalum (Ta), titanium (Ti), molybdenum (Mo), and tungsten (W); an alloy containing any one of these elements as its main component; or the like can be used. For example, a three-layer structure of a titanium film, an aluminum film, and a titanium film; a three-layer structure of a molybdenum film, an aluminum film, and a molybdenum film; or the like can be used as the metal conductive film. Note that the metal conductive film is not limited to a three-layer structure, and a single layer or a two-layer structure, or a stacked structure of four or more layers may be used. [0034] As the gate insulating film 30 , a silicon oxide film, a silicon nitride film, a silicon oxynitride film, a silicon nitride oxide film, an aluminum oxide film, an aluminum nitride film, an aluminum oxynitride film, an aluminum nitride oxide film, a hafnium oxide film, or the like can be used. [0035] As an oxide semiconductor used for the oxide semiconductor film 40 , the following metal oxide can be used: five-component metal oxide such as an In—Sn—Ga—Zn—O-based oxide semiconductor; four-component metal oxide such as an In—Ga—Zn—O-based oxide semiconductor, an In—Sn—Zn—O-based oxide semiconductor, an In—Al—Zn—O-based oxide semiconductor, a Sn—Ga—Zn—O-based oxide semiconductor, an Al—Ga—Zn—O-based oxide semiconductor, and a Sn—Al—Zn—O-based oxide semiconductor; three-component metal oxide such as an In—Zn—O-based oxide semiconductor, a Sn—Zn—O-based oxide semiconductor, an Al—Zn—O-based oxide semiconductor, a Zn—Mg—O-based oxide semiconductor, a Sn—Mg—O-based oxide semiconductor, an In—Mg—O-based oxide semiconductor, and an In—Ga—O-based oxide semiconductor; two-component metal oxide such as an In—O-based oxide semiconductor, a Sn—O-based oxide semiconductor, and a Zn—O-based oxide semiconductor; or the like. Note that in this specification, for example, an In—Sn—Ga—Zn—O-based oxide semiconductor means metal oxide including indium (In), tin (Sn), gallium (Ga), and zinc (Zn), and the composition ratio thereof is not particularly limited. Additionally, the oxide semiconductor film 40 may contain silicon oxide (SiO 2 ). [0036] In addition, for the oxide semiconductor film 40 , an oxide semiconductor with a structure represented by InMO 3 (ZnO). (m>0) can also be used. Note here that M denotes a single metal element or a plurality of metal elements selected from gallium (Ga), aluminum (Al), manganese (Mn), and cobalt (Co). Examples of M are gallium, gallium and aluminum, gallium and manganese, gallium and cobalt, and the like. [0037] Note that, of oxide semiconductors with a structure represented by InMO 3 (ZnO) m (m>0), an oxide semiconductor containing gallium (Ga) as M is also referred to as an In—Ga—Zn—O-based oxide semiconductor. [0038] Impurities such as hydrogen, moisture, a hydroxyl group, and hydroxide (also referred to as a hydrogen compound) which act as donors are intentionally eliminated from the oxide semiconductor film 40 , and then, oxygen is supplied to the oxide semiconductor film 40 since oxygen is also reduced in the process of eliminating these impurities. Therefore, the oxide semiconductor film 40 is highly purified and electrically i-type (intrinsic). This is in order to suppress the fluctuations of electrical characteristics of the thin film transistor. [0039] The smaller the amount of hydrogen in the oxide semiconductor film 40 is, the closer to i-type the oxide semiconductor film 40 is. Therefore, the concentration of hydrogen contained in the oxide semiconductor film 40 may be 5×10 19 /cm 3 or less, preferably 5×10 18 /cm 3 or less, more preferably 5×10 17 /cm 3 or less, or further more preferably less than 5×10 16 /cm 3 . The concentration of the hydrogen can be measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). [0040] Hydrogen contained in the oxide semiconductor film 40 is eliminated as much as possible; thus, the carrier density of the oxide semiconductor film 40 is to be less than 5×10 14 /cm 3 , preferably 5×10 12 /cm 3 or less, or more preferably 5×10 16 /cm 3 or less. The carrier density of the oxide semiconductor film 40 can be measured in such a manner that a MOS capacitor including the oxide semiconductor film 40 is fabricated, and then, the results of C-V measurement (C-V characteristics) for the MOS capacitor are evaluated. [0041] Additionally, an oxide semiconductor is a wide band gap semiconductor. The band gap of an In—Ga—Zn—O-based oxide semiconductor is 3.15 eV, while the band gap of silicon is 1.12 eV, for example. [0042] In an oxide semiconductor, which is a wide band gap semiconductor, the density of the minority carrier is low and the minority carrier is difficult to be induced. Thus, it can be said that, in the thin film transistor including the oxide semiconductor film 40 , tunnel current is difficult to be generated; consequently, off-state current is difficult to flow. Therefore, off-state current per 1-μm channel width of the thin film transistor including the oxide semiconductor film 40 can be 100 aA/μm or less, preferably 10 aA/μm or less, or more preferably 1 aA/μm or less. [0043] Additionally, since an oxide semiconductor is a wide band gap semiconductor, impact ionization and avalanche breakdown are difficult to occur in the thin film transistor including the oxide semiconductor film 40 . Therefore, it can be said that the thin film transistor including the oxide semiconductor film 40 has resistance to hot carrier deterioration. This is because hot carrier deterioration is mainly caused by increase in the number of carriers by avalanche breakdown and injection of the carriers accelerated to high speed to the gate insulating film. [0044] The metal film 70 is used as a source electrode or a drain electrode. For the metal film 70 , a metal material such as aluminum (Al), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), tantalum (Ta), titanium (Ti), molybdenum (Mo), or tungsten (W); or an alloy material whose main component is any one of these metal materials can be used. In addition, 25 the metal film 70 may have a structure in which a film of high-melting-point metal formed using chromium (Cr), tantalum (Ta), titanium (Ti), molybdenum (Mo), tungsten (W), or the like is stacked on one side or the both sides of a metal film formed using aluminum (Al), copper (Cu), or the like. Note that aluminum to which an element which prevents hillocks or whiskers which occur in the aluminum film is added is used as a material; thus, the metal film 70 with high heat resistance can be obtained. Examples of the element are silicon (Si), titanium (Ti), tantalum (Ta), tungsten (W), molybdenum (Mo), chromium (Cr), neodymium (Nd), scandium (Sc), yttrium (Y), and the like. [0045] As the metal oxide film 60 , a film containing oxide of the metal contained in the metal film 70 can be used. For example, in the case where the metal film 70 is a film containing titanium, a titanium oxide film or the like can be used as the metal oxide film 60 . [0046] Further, the oxide semiconductor film 40 is in contact with the metal oxide film 60 and includes a region whose metal concentration is higher than that in any other region in the oxide semiconductor film 40 . The region with the higher metal concentration is also referred to as a high metal concentration region 50 . [0047] FIG. 1B is an enlarged cross sectional schematic view of a region 100 in FIG. 1(A) . [0048] As shown in FIG. 1B , in a high metal concentration region 50 , metal contained in the oxide semiconductor film 40 may be present as a crystal grain or a microcrystal. [0049] FIG. 2 is an energy-band diagram (a schematic diagram) between a source electrode and a drain electrode in the thin film transistor with a structure shown in FIGS. 1A and 1B . FIG. 2 illustrates the case where a difference between a potential of a source electrode and a potential of a drain electrode is zero. [0050] Here, the high metal concentration region 50 is dealt as metal. In addition, the impurities are eliminated from the oxide semiconductor film 40 as much as possible and oxygen is supplied to the oxide semiconductor film 40 ; thus, the oxide semiconductor film 40 is highly purified and electrically i-type (intrinsic). As a result, in the energy-band diagram, Fermi level (Ef) of the inside of the oxide semiconductor film 40 is placed near the middle of the band gap. [0051] From this energy-band diagram, it can be found that there is no barrier at an interface between the high metal concentration region 50 and any other region in the oxide semiconductor film 40 and a favorable contact can be obtained. The same is true of an interface between the high metal concentration region 50 and the metal oxide film 60 , and an interface between the metal oxide film 60 and the metal film 70 . Embodiment 2 [0052] A process of manufacturing a thin film transistor with a structure shown in FIGS. 1A and 1B will be described. [0053] First, after a conductive film is formed over the substrate 10 having an insulating surface, the gate electrode 20 is formed by a first photolithography step. [0054] A resist mask used in the first photolithography step may be formed by an inkjet method. When a resist mask is formed by an inkjet method, photo masks are not used, so that the manufacturing cost can be reduced. [0055] Next, the gate insulating film 30 is formed over the gate electrode 20 . [0056] The gate insulating film 30 is formed by a plasma CVD method, a sputtering method, or the like. As the gate insulating film 30 , a film formed using silicon oxide, silicon nitride, silicon oxynitride, silicon nitride oxide, aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride, aluminum oxynitride, aluminum nitride oxide, hafnium oxide, or the like is preferably used. [0057] The gate insulating film 30 in contact with the oxide semiconductor film 40 is required to be a dense film with high withstand voltage. Therefore, a dense film with high withstand voltage which is formed by a high density plasma CVD method using μ wave (2.45 GHz) is especially suitable for the gate insulating film 30 . [0058] A property of an interface between the gate insulating film 30 obtained in the above manner, which is a dense film with high withstand voltage, and the oxide semiconductor film 40 which has been i-type in such a manner that the impurities are eliminated therefrom as much as possible and oxygen is supplied thereto is improved. [0059] If a property of the interface between the oxide semiconductor film 40 and the gate insulating film 30 was not preferable, a band between the impurity and a main component of the oxide semiconductor would be broken in a gate bias-temperature stress test (a BT test: 85° C., 2×10 6 V/cm, 12 hours); as a result, a threshold voltage shift would be caused due to a generated dangling bond. [0060] The gate insulating film 30 may have a stacked structure of a nitride insulating film and an oxide insulating film. For example, the gate insulating film 30 with a stacked structure can be formed in such a manner that a silicon nitride film (SiN y (y>0)) having a thickness of 50 nm to 200 nm inclusive is formed by a sputtering method as a first gate insulating film, and then a silicon oxide film (SiO x (x>0)) having a thickness of 5 nm to 300 nm inclusive is formed as a second gate insulating film on the first gate insulating film. The thickness of the gate insulating film 30 may be determined as appropriate depending on a property required for the thin film transistor, and may be approximately 350 nm to 400 nm inclusive. [0061] Preferably, as pretreatment before forming the gate insulating film 30 , the substrate 10 provided with the gate electrode 20 may be preheated in a preheating chamber of sputtering apparatus, so that impurities such as hydrogen and moisture absorbed in the substrate 10 are removed and eliminated. This preheating is performed for the reason that the impurities such as hydrogen and moisture are not contained as far as possible in the gate insulating film 30 and the oxide semiconductor film 40 which are subsequently formed. Alternatively, the substrate 10 may be preheated at the time when the gate insulating film 30 is formed thereover. [0062] The appropriate temperature of preheating is 100° C. to 400° C. inclusive. The temperature of 150° C. to 300° C. inclusive is more preferable. Additionally, a cryopump is appropriately used for an exhaustion unit in the preheating chamber. [0063] Next, the oxide semiconductor film 40 is formed on the gate insulating film 30 . The appropriate thickness of the oxide semiconductor film 40 is 2 nm to 200 nm inclusive. [0064] The oxide semiconductor film 40 is formed by a sputtering method. The film formation by the sputtering method is performed in a rare gas (typically argon) atmosphere, an oxygen atmosphere, or a mixed atmosphere containing a rare gas and oxygen. [0065] As a target used for forming the oxide semiconductor film 40 by the sputtering method, metal oxide including zinc oxide as a main component can be used. Alternatively, a target for forming an oxide semiconductor containing indium (In), gallium (Ga), and zinc (Zn) having the relative proportion of In 2 O 3 :Ga 2 O 3 :ZnO=1:1:1 [mol %], or In:Ga:Zn=1:1:0.5 [atom %], In:Ga:Zn=1:1:1 [atom %], or In:Ga:Zn=1:1:2 [atom %] can also be used. In addition, the appropriate fill rate of the target for forming the oxide semiconductor is 90% to 100% inclusive. The fill rate of 95% to 99.9% inclusive is more preferable. This is because a denser oxide semiconductor film can be formed when the target for forming the oxide semiconductor with a high fill rate is used. [0066] Before the oxide semiconductor film 40 is formed, the substrate 10 is placed in a treatment chamber in a reduced pressure state, and the substrate 10 is heated to a temperature higher than or equal to room temperature and lower than 400° C. After that, while residual moisture left in the treatment chamber is eliminated and a sputtering gas from which hydrogen and moisture have been eliminated is introduced to the chamber, voltage is applied between the substrate 10 and the target, so that the oxide semiconductor film 40 is formed over the substrate 10 . [0067] It is appropriate that a sorption vacuum pump is used for the exhaustion unit for removing residual moisture left in the treatment chamber. Examples of the pump are a cryopump, an ion pump, a titanium sublimation pump, and the like. Alternatively, a turbo pump provided with a cold trap can be used for the exhaustion unit. From the treatment chamber, a hydrogen atom, a hydrogen molecule, a compound including a hydrogen atom, such as water (H 2 O), or the like (more preferably, together with a compound including a carbon atom) is eliminated; thus, the concentration of impurities contained in the oxide semiconductor film 40 which is formed in the treatment chamber can be reduced. Additionally, film formation by a sputtering method is performed while residual moisture left in the treatment chamber is eliminated with a cryopump; thus, the temperature of the substrate 10 at the time of forming the oxide semiconductor film 40 can be higher than or equal to room temperature and lower than 400° C. [0068] Note that before the oxide semiconductor film 40 is formed by a sputtering method, dust on a surface of the gate insulating film 30 may be preferably removed by reverse sputtering. The reverse sputtering refers to a method in which a substrate surface is cleaned with reactive plasma generated by voltage application to the substrate side using an RF power source without voltage application to a target side. Note that the reverse sputtering is performed in an argon atmosphere. Alternatively, nitrogen, helium, oxygen, or the like may be used instead of argon. [0069] After the oxide semiconductor film 40 is formed, the oxide semiconductor film 40 is subjected to dehydration or dehydrogenation. It is appropriate that the heat treatment for dehydration or dehydrogenation is performed at 400° C. to 750° C. inclusive; in particular, the preferable temperature is 425° C. or higher. Note that although the heat treatment may be performed for one hour or less when the treatment is performed at 425° C. or higher, the heat treatment is preferably performed for more than one hour when the treatment is performed at lower than 425° C. In this specification, “dehydrogenation” does not indicate only elimination of a hydrogen molecule (H 2 ) by this heat treatment. For convenience, elimination of a hydrogen atom (H), a hydroxy group (OH), and the like is also referred to as “dehydration or dehydrogenation.” [0070] For example, the substrate 10 which is provided with the oxide semiconductor film 40 is put in an electric furnace which is a kind of heat treatment apparatus and heat treatment is performed in a nitrogen atmosphere. After that, a high-purity oxygen gas, a high-purity dinitrogen monoxide (N 2 O) gas, or an ultra-dry air (a mixed gas of nitrogen and oxygen at the ratio of nitrogen to oxygen, which is 4:1, having a dew point of lower than or equal to −40° C., preferably lower than or equal to −60° C.) is introduced into the same furnace and cooling is performed. It is preferable that water, hydrogen, and the like be not included in the oxygen gas or the dinitrogen monoxide (N 2 O) gas. In addition, it is appropriate that the purity of an oxygen gas or a dinitrogen monoxide (N 2 O) gas is 6N (99.9999%) or more preferably 7N (99.99999%) or more (i.e., the concentration of the impurities in the oxygen gas or the dinitrogen monoxide (N 2 O) gas is 1 ppm or less, more preferably 0.1 ppm or less). [0071] Note that the heat treatment apparatus is not limited to the electric furnace, and an RTA (rapid thermal annealing) apparatus such as a GRTA (gas rapid thermal annealing) apparatus or an LRTA (lamp rapid thermal annealing) apparatus can be used, for example. [0072] In addition, heat treatment for the dehydration or dehydrogenation of the oxide semiconductor film 40 can be performed for the oxide semiconductor film 40 before or after the oxide semiconductor film 40 is processed into an island shape in a second photolithography step. [0073] Through the above processes, the entire region of the oxide semiconductor film 40 is in an oxygen-excess state, and thus the entire region of the oxide semiconductor film 40 has high resistance and is i-type. [0074] Next, the metal film 70 is stacked over the gate insulating film 30 and on the oxide semiconductor film 40 . The metal film 70 may be formed by a sputtering method, a vacuum evaporation method, or the like. In addition, the metal film 70 may have a single layer structure or a stacked structure of two or more layers. [0075] After that, a resist mask is formed over the metal film 70 by a third photolithography step. The resist mask is selectively etched, so that a source electrode and a drain electrode are formed. Then, the resist mask is removed. [0076] The channel length of the thin film transistor is determined depending on the distance between a bottom edge of the source electrode and a bottom edge of the drain electrode which are adjacent to each other over the oxide semiconductor film 40 . That is, it can be said that the channel length of the thin film transistor is determined depending on the conditions of the light exposure whereby the resist mask is formed in the third photolithography process. For the light exposure for forming the resist mask in the third photolithography process, ultraviolet, KrF laser, or ArF laser can be used. In addition, in the case where the cannel length is shorter than 25 nm, the light exposure may be performed with extreme ultraviolet, whose wave length is extremely short, that is, several nanometers to several tens nanometers inclusive. This is because the light exposure with extreme ultraviolet can provide a high resolution and a large focus depth. Therefore, the channel length of the thin film transistor can be 10 nm to 1000 nm inclusive depending on the kind of light used for the light exposure. [0077] Note that materials for the metal film 70 and materials for the oxide semiconductor film 40 , and etching conditions need to be adjusted as appropriate so that the oxide semiconductor film 40 is not removed when the metal film 70 is etched. [0078] For example, when a titanium film is used as the metal film 70 and an In—Ga—Zn—O-based oxide semiconductor film is used as the oxide semiconductor film 40 , an ammonia hydrogen peroxide solution (a mixture liquid of ammonia, water, and a hydrogen peroxide solution) may be used as an etchant. [0079] Note that it is acceptable that the oxide semiconductor film 40 has a groove (a depression portion) by being etched only partly in the third photolithography step. The resist mask used for forming the source electrode and the drain electrode may be formed by an inkjet method. When a resist mask is formed by an inkjet method, photo masks are not used; therefore, the manufacturing cost can be reduced. [0080] Water (absorbed water) or the like on a surface of the oxide semiconductor film 40 which is not covered may be eliminated by plasma treatment with a gas such as dinitrogen monoxide (N 2 O), nitrogen (N 2 ), or argon (Ar) after the source electrode and the drain electrode are formed. In the plasma treatment, a mixed gas of oxygen and argon can also be used. [0081] In the case where the plasma treatment is performed, the insulating film 80 which is in contact with part of the oxide semiconductor film 40 is formed without exposing the oxide semiconductor film 40 to air. In the thin film transistor shown in FIG. 1A , the oxide semiconductor film 40 is in contact with the insulating film 80 at the portion of the oxide semiconductor film 40 which is not covered with the metal film 70 . [0082] As an example of the insulating film 80 , a silicon oxide film having defects is given. The silicon oxide film is formed in the following manner: the substrate 10 which is provided with the oxide semiconductor film 40 and the metal film 70 is heated at a temperature higher than or equal to room temperature and lower than 100° C.; a sputtering gas containing high-purity oxygen from which hydrogen and moisture have been eliminated is introduced; and a silicon target is used. [0083] The insulating film 80 is preferably formed while residual moisture left in the treatment chamber is eliminated. This is in order to prevent the oxide semiconductor film 40 and the insulating film 80 from containing hydrogen, hydroxy group, and moisture. [0084] It is appropriate that a sorption vacuum pump is used for the exhaustion unit for eliminating residual moisture from the treatment chamber. Examples of the pump are a cryopump, an ion pump, a titanium sublimation pump, and the like. Alternatively, a turbo pump provided with a cold trap can be used for the exhaustion unit. From the treatment chamber, a hydrogen atom, a hydrogen molecule, a compound including a hydrogen atom, such as water (H 2 O), and the like are eliminated; thus, the concentration of impurities contained in the insulating film 80 which is formed in the treatment chamber can be reduced. [0085] Note that as the insulating film 80 , a silicon oxynitride film, an aluminum oxide film, or an aluminum oxynitride film in addition to a silicon oxide film can be used. [0086] After the insulating film 80 is formed, heat treatment is performed under an atmosphere of an inert gas or an atmosphere of a nitrogen gas at a temperature of 100° C. to 400° C. inclusive, or preferably at a temperature higher than or equal to 150° C. and lower than 350° C. Once the heat treatment is performed, the impurities such as hydrogen, moisture, hydroxy group, and hydride contained in the oxide semiconductor film 40 is diffused into the insulating film 80 having defects. As a result, the impurities contained in the oxide semiconductor film 40 can be further reduced. [0087] In addition, by the heat treatment, the metal oxide film 60 is formed at the interface between the oxide semiconductor film 40 and the metal film 70 and the high metal concentration region 50 is formed at a region in the oxide semiconductor film 40 which is in contact with the metal oxide film 60 . [0088] Note that the metal oxide film 60 may be formed on the oxide semiconductor film 40 by a sputtering method before the metal film 70 is formed. In this case, the thin film transistor shown in FIGS. 1A and 1B is obtained in such a manner that the metal oxide film 60 is removed from the region on the oxide semiconductor film 40 which is not to be covered with the metal film 70 after the metal oxide film 60 is formed on the oxide semiconductor film 40 . [0089] Further, the above heat treatment may be performed before the insulating film 80 is formed. [0090] Through the above process, the thin film transistor with a structure shown in FIGS. 1A and 1B can be formed. Embodiment 3 [0091] Phenomena, in the thin film transistor with a structure shown in FIGS. 1A and 1B , where the metal oxide film 60 is formed at the interface between the oxide semiconductor film 40 and the metal film 70 and the high metal concentration region 50 is formed at a region in the oxide semiconductor film 40 which is in contact with the metal oxide film 60 were examined by computational science, and the results will be described. [0092] In the following calculation, the case where the oxide semiconductor film 40 is an In—Ga—Zn—O-based oxide semiconductor film was considered. In addition, the case where the metal film 70 is a tungsten (W) film, a molybdenum (Mo) film, or a titanium (Ti) film was considered. [Phenomenon in Which the High Metal Concentration Region 50 is Formed] [0093] Energy which is necessary for oxide of each of indium, gallium, and zinc contained in an In—Ga—Zn—O-based oxide semiconductor to form an oxygen-deficient state (deficiency formation energy E def ) was calculated. [0094] The deficiency formation energy E def is defined by Formula 1 shown as follows. [0000] [Formula 1] [0000] E def =E ( A m O n-1 )+ E ( O )− E ( A m O n )   (1) [0095] Note that E(A m O n-1 ) represents energy of oxide with oxygen deficiency A m O n-1 , E(O) represents energy of an oxygen atom, and E(A m O n ) represents energy of oxide without oxygen deficiency A m O n . In addition, A represents one of the following: indium; gallium; zinc; or a combination of indium, gallium, and zinc. [0096] Additionally, a relation between a concentration of oxygen deficiency n and the deficiency formation energy E def is approximately represented by Formula 2 shown as follows. [0000] [ Formula   2 ] n = N   exp  ( - E def k B  T ) ( 2 ) [0097] Note that N represents the number of oxygen atoms in a state where deficiency is not formed, k B represents Boltzmann constant, and T represents absolute temperature. [0098] From Formula 2, it was found that when the deficiency formation energy E def is increased, the concentration of oxygen deficiency n, that is, the amount of oxygen deficiency is decreased. [0099] For the calculation of the deficiency formation energy E def , CASTEP, which is a calculation program for a density functional theory, was used. A plane-wave-basis pseudopotential method was used as the density functional theory, and GGA-PBE was used for a functional. The cut-off energy was set to 500 eV. The number of grids at k point was set as follows: 3×3×1 for oxide containing indium, gallium, and zinc (hereinafter, also referred to as IGZO); 2×2×2 for indium oxide (hereinafter, also referred to as In 2 O 3 ); 2×3×2 for gallium oxide (hereinafter, also referred to as Ga 2 O 3 ); and 4×4×1 for zinc oxide (hereinafter, also referred to as ZnO). [0100] As a crystal structure of IGZO, a structure where 84 atoms obtained by doubling a structure of a symmetry R-3 (international number: 148) both in the a-axis direction and in the b-axis direction were arranged so that energy of Ga and Zn was minimized was employed. Crystal structures of In 2 O 3 , Ga 2 O 3 , and ZnO were a bixbyite structure of 80 atoms, a β-gallia structure of 80 atoms, and an wurtzite structure of 80 atoms, respectively. [0101] Table 1 shows values of the deficiency formation energy E def in the cases where A in Formula 1 is indium; gallium; zinc; and a combination of indium, gallium, and zinc. Additionally, FIGS. 3A to 3C show crystal structures of metal and oxygen in the In—Ga—Zn—O-based oxide semiconductor. [0000] TABLE 1 Compound E def (eV) In 2 O 3 3.06 ZnO 3.75 IGZO (Model 1) 3.73 IGZO (Model 2) 3.98 IGZO (Model 3) 4.08 Ga 2 O 3 4.18 [0102] The value of the deficiency formation energy E def of IGZO (Model 1) corresponds to the deficiency formation energy of oxygen adjacent to three indium atoms and one zinc atom in an IGZO crystal in the case where A is a combination of indium, gallium, and zinc (see FIG. 3A ). [0103] The value of the deficiency formation energy E def of IGZO (Model 2) corresponds to the deficiency formation energy of oxygen adjacent to three indium atoms and one gallium atom in an IGZO crystal in the case where A is a combination of indium, gallium, and zinc (see FIG. 3B ). [0104] The value of the deficiency formation energy E def of IGZO (Model 3) corresponds to the deficiency formation energy of oxygen adjacent to two zinc atoms and two gallium atoms in an IGZO crystal in the case where A is a combination of indium, gallium, and zinc (see FIG. 3C ). [0105] The larger the value of the deficiency formation energy E def is, the more energy is needed for formation of an oxygen-deficient state. That is, it was suggested that the larger the value of the deficiency formation energy E def is, the stronger the bond between oxygen and metal tends to be. In other words, from Table 1, it could be said that indium, whose value of the deficiency formation energy E def was the lowest, had the weakest bond with oxygen. [0106] An oxygen-deficient state in an In—Ga—Zn—O-based oxide semiconductor was formed because the metal film 70 used for a source electrode or a drain electrode extracts oxygen from the oxide semiconductor film 40 . Part of the oxide semiconductor film 40 which was thus brought into an oxygen-deficient state became the high metal concentration region 50 . The carrier density of the oxide semiconductor film 40 varies at least by two digits depending on the presence of this high metal concentration region 50 . This is because oxygen was extracted from the oxide semiconductor film 40 , and the oxide semiconductor film 40 thus became n-type. Note that to be n-type means to be in a state where the number of electrons which are majority carriers increases. [Phenomenon in Which the Metal Oxide Film 60 is Formed] [0107] Quantum molecular dynamic (QMD) simulation was performed on a stacked structure of the oxide semiconductor film 40 using the In—Ga—Zn—O-based oxide semiconductor and the metal film 70 . This is in order to confirm extraction of oxygen from the oxide semiconductor by metal. [0108] A structure for the calculation was manufactured in the following manner. First, structural optimization using a QMD method was performed on an amorphous In—Ga—Zn—O-based oxide semiconductor (hereinafter, also referred to as a-IGZO) formed by a classical molecular dynamic (CMD) method. Further, by cutting the structure-optimized unit cell, a-IGZO films were obtained. On the a-IGZO films, metal films having crystals of respective metal atoms (W, Mo, and Ti) were stacked. After that, the manufactured structures were structurally optimized. Each of these structures was used as a starting object, and calculation was performed using the QMD method at 623.0 K. Note that the lower end of each of the a-IGZO films and the top end of each of the metal films were fixed so that only interaction at the interface could be estimated. [0109] Calculation conditions for the CMD calculation are shown below. Materials Explorer was used for a calculation program. The a-IGZO was formed under the following conditions. The all 84 atoms were arranged at random in a simulation cell with a side of 1 nm at a ratio of In:Ga:Zn:O=1:1:1:4, and the density was set to 5.9 g/cm 3 . The CMD calculation was performed with an NVT ensemble, and the temperature was gradually lowered from 5500 K to 1 K. After that, structural relaxation was performed at 1 K for 10 ns. The total calculation time was 10 ns with time intervals of 0.1 fs. As for potentials, a Born-Mayer-Huggins potential was applied to a metal-oxygen bond and an oxygen-oxygen bond, and a Lennard-Jones potential was applied to a metal-metal bond. Charges were set as follows: +3 for In, +3 for Ga, +2 for Zn, and −2 for O. [0110] Calculation conditions for the QMD calculation are shown below. A first principle calculation software, CASTEP, was used for a calculation program. GGA-PBE was used for a functional. Ultrasoft was used for a pseudopotential. The cut-off energy was set to 260 eV, and the k-point was set to 1×1×1. The QMD calculation was performed with the NVT ensemble, and the temperature was 623 K. The total calculation time was 2.0 ps with time intervals of 1.0 fs. [0111] The results of the above calculations are described with reference to structural models shown in FIGS. 4A and 4B , FIGS. 5A and 5B , and FIGS. 6A and 6B . In FIGS. 4A and 4B , FIGS. 5A and 5B , and FIGS. 6A and 6B , a white sphere represents a crystalline metal atom contained in a metal film stacked on the a-IGZO film, and a black sphere represents an oxygen atom. [0112] FIGS. 4A and 4B show structural models in which a metal film containing a crystal of tungsten (W) was stacked on the a-IGZO film. FIG. 4A corresponds to the structure before the QMD calculation, and FIG. 4B corresponds to the structure after the QMD calculation. [0113] FIGS. 5A and 5B show structural models in which a metal film containing a crystal of molybdenum (Mo) was stacked on the a-IGZO film. FIG. 5A corresponds to the structure before the QMD calculation, and FIG. 5B corresponds to the structure after the QMD calculation. [0114] FIGS. 6A and 6B show structural models in which a metal film containing a crystal of titanium (Ti) was stacked on the a-IGZO film. FIG. 6A corresponds to the structure before the QMD calculation, and FIG. 6B corresponds to the structure after the QMD calculation. [0115] From FIG. 5A and FIG. 6A , it could be found that oxygen atoms have already moved to the metal film before the structural optimization is performed in the case where a metal film containing a crystal of molybdenum or titanium is stacked on the a-IGZO film. In addition, from the comparison among FIG. 4B , FIG. 5B , and FIG. 6B , it could be found that the largest number of oxygen atoms move to the metal film in the case where a metal film containing a crystal of titanium is stacked on the a-IGZO film. Therefore, when titanium was used as the metal, oxygen was extracted from an oxide semiconductor by metal the most frequently. The results indicated that a metal film containing a titanium crystal was the most optimal as an electrode leading to the oxygen deficiency in the a-IGZO film. [Carrier Density of Oxide Semiconductor Film 40 ] [0116] The fact that the metal contained in the metal film 70 extracts oxygen from the oxide semiconductor film 40 was evaluated by actually fabricating an element. Specifically, the carrier density of the oxide semiconductor film 40 was calculated both in the case where the metal film capable of extracting oxygen was stacked on the oxide semiconductor film and in the case where the metal film incapable of extracting oxygen was stacked on the oxide semiconductor film; then, the results were compared. [0117] The carrier density of the oxide semiconductor film can be obtained in such a manner that an MOS capacitor including an oxide semiconductor film is fabricated and the results of the C-V measurement (the C-V characteristics) for the MOS capacitor are evaluated. [0118] The carrier density was measured in the following steps 1 to 3: (1) to obtain a C-V characteristics diagram on which the relation between the gate voltage (Vg) and capacitance (C) of the MOS capacitor are plotted; (2) to obtain a graph showing the relation between the gate voltage (Vg) and (1/C) 2 with the use of the C-V characteristics, and to determine the differential value of (1/C) 2 in a weak inversion region in the graph; and (3) to substitute the determined differential value into Formula 3, which is shown below, representing the carrier density (Nd). [0000] [ Formula   3 ] N d = - ( 2 e   ɛ 0  ɛ ) /  ( 1 / C ) 2  V ( 3 ) [0119] Note that e represents an electrical element amount, ε 0 represents vacuum dielectric constant, and ε represents relative dielectric constant of an oxide semiconductor. [0120] As samples for the measurement, an MOS capacitor including a metal film capable of extracting oxygen (hereinafter, also referred to as Sample 1), and an MOS capacitor including a metal film incapable of extracting oxygen (hereinafter, also referred to as Sample 2) were prepared. Note that a titanium film was used for the metal film that is effective in extracting oxygen. As the metal film that is not effective in extracting oxygen, a film including a titanium film and a titanium nitride film provided on the surface of the titanium film (on the oxide semiconductor side) was used. [0121] The details of the samples are as follows: Sample 1 includes a titanium film of 400 nm in thickness over a glass substrate, an oxide semiconductor film of 2 μm in thickness including an amorphous In—Ga—Zn—O-based oxide semiconductor (a-IGZO) on the titanium film, a silicon oxynitride film of 300 nm in thickness on the oxide semiconductor film, and a silver film of 300 nm in thickness on the silicon oxynitride film; and Sample 2, a titanium film of 300 nm in thickness over a glass substrate, a titanium nitride film of 100 nm in thickness on the titanium film, an oxide semiconductor film of 2 μm in thickness including an amorphous In—Ga—Zn—O-based oxide semiconductor (a-IGZO) on the titanium nitride film, a silicon oxynitride film of 300 nm in thickness on the oxide semiconductor film, and a silver film of 300 nm in thickness on the silicon oxynitride film. [0122] Note that the oxide semiconductor films included in Sample 1 and Sample 2 were formed by a sputtering method using a target for forming the oxide semiconductor film containing indium (In), gallium (Ga), and zinc (Zn) (In:Ga:Zn=1:1:0.5 [atom %]). In addition, the atmosphere for forming the oxide semiconductor films was a mixed atmosphere of argon (Ar) and oxygen (O 2 ) (Ar:O 2 =30 (sccm):15 (sccm)). [0123] FIG. 7A shows the C-V characteristics of Sample 1. In addition, FIG. 7B shows the relation between the gate voltage (Vg) and (1/C) 2 of Sample 1. The differential value of (1/C) 2 in a weak inversion region in FIG. 7B was substituted into Formula 3; thus, the carrier density of the oxide semiconductor film was determined to be 1.8×10 12 /cm 2 . [0124] FIG. 8A shows the C-V characteristics of Sample 2. In addition, FIG. 8B shows the relation between the gate voltage (Vg) and (1/C) 2 of Sample 2. The differential value of (1/C) 2 in a weak inversion region in FIG. 8B was substituted into Formula 3; thus, the carrier density of the oxide semiconductor film was determined to be 6.0×10 10 /cm 3 . [0125] From the above results, it was found that the values of the carrier density of the oxide semiconductor film shift by two digits from each other in the case of the MOS capacitor including a metal film capable of extracting oxygen (Sample 1), and the MOS capacitor including a metal film incapable of extracting oxygen (Sample 2). This suggested that oxygen was extracted from the oxide semiconductor film by the metal film and the oxygen deficiency increased in the oxide semiconductor film; thus, the oxide semiconductor film in contact with the metal film became n-type. Note that to be n-type means to be in a state where the number of electrons which are majority carriers increases. [Conductivity of Titanium Oxide Film] [0126] Taking into consideration the above calculation results, the case where the metal film 70 is a metal film containing a titanium crystal in the thin film transistor shown in FIGS. 1A and 1B was considered. [0127] At the interface between the In—Ga—Zn—O-based oxide semiconductor film (corresponding to the oxide semiconductor film 40 in FIGS. 1A and 1B ) and a titanium film (corresponding to the metal film 70 in FIGS. 1A and 1B ), oxygen which is extracted by titanium reacts titanium; thus, a titanium oxide film (corresponding to the metal oxide film 60 in FIGS. 1A and 1B ) was formed. Next, the verification results of the conductivity of this titanium oxide film obtained by computational science are shown. [0128] Titanium dioxide had several crystal structures such as a rutile structure (high temperature tetragonal crystal), an anatase structure (low temperature tetragonal crystal), and a brookite structure (orthorhombic crystal). Since both the anatase structure and the brookite structure are, by being heated, irreversibly changed into the rutile structure, which is the most stable structure, the above titanium dioxide was assumed to have the rutile structure. [0129] FIG. 9 shows a crystal structure of titanium dioxide having a rutile structure. The rutile structure is a tetragonal crystal and belongs to the space group, which is a description of the symmetry of the crystal, of P42/mnm. Note that titanium dioxide having an anatase structure also belongs to the space group, which is a description of the symmetry of the crystal, of P42/mnm like the titanium dioxide having the rutile structure. [0130] Simulation for obtaining a state density was performed on the above crystal structure of titanium dioxide by a density functional theory using a GGA-PBE functional. With symmetry maintained, the structure including the cell structure was optimized and the state density was calculated. For calculation by a density functional theory, a plane wave pseudopotential method using the CASTEP code was used. The cut-off energy was set to 380 eV. [0131] FIG. 10 shows a state density of titanium dioxide having a rutile structure. From FIG. 10 , it was found that titanium dioxide having the rutile structure has a band gap, and that it has a state density similar to that of a semiconductor. Note that, in the density functional theory, the band gap tends to be estimated small; therefore, the actual band gap of titanium dioxide is approximately 3.0 eV, which is larger than the band gap shown in the state density shown by FIG. 10 . Note that since calculation of electron state using a density functional theory was performed at absolute zero; therefore, an origin of energy is Fermi level. [0132] FIG. 11 shows a state density of titanium dioxide having a rutile structure in an oxygen-deficient state. Titanium oxide containing 24 Ti atoms and 47 O atoms, which is obtained by removing one O atom from titanium oxide containing 24 Ti atoms and 48 O atoms, was used as a model for the simulation. As shown in FIG. 11 , in the oxygen-deficient state, Fermi level is in the conductive band and the state density at Fermi level is not zero. From this, it was found that the titanium dioxide with oxygen deficiency has n-type conductivity. [0133] FIG. 12 shows a state density of titanium monoxide (TiO). As shown in FIG. 12 , it was found that titanium monoxide has a state density like that of metal. [0134] From the state density of titanium dioxide in FIG. 10 , the state density of 30 titanium dioxide including oxygen deficiency in FIG. 11 , and the state density of titanium monoxide in FIG. 12 , it was expected that titanium dioxide including oxygen deficiency (TiO 2-δ ) has n-type conductivity when 0<δ<1. Therefore, even in the case where a titanium oxide film (the metal oxide film 60 ) contains titanium monoxide, or titanium dioxide including oxygen deficiency as its component, current flow is hardly blocked between an In—Ga—Zn—O-based oxide semiconductor film (the oxide semiconductor film 40 ) and a titanium film (the metal film 70 ). Embodiment 4 [0135] The thin film transistor described in the above Embodiments can be applied to a variety of electronic devices (including an amusement machine). Examples of electronic devices include a television set (also referred to as a television or a television receiver), a monitor of a computer or the like, a camera such as a digital camera or a digital video camera, a digital photo frame, a mobile phone set (also referred to as a mobile phone or a mobile phone device), a portable game console, a portable information terminal, an audio reproducing device, a large-sized game machine such as a pachinko machine, a solar panel, and the like. Some examples of the electronic devices to which the thin film transistor described in the above Embodiments is applied are described below with reference to FIGS. 13A and 13B . [0136] FIG. 13A shows one example of the mobile phone set to which the thin film transistor described in the above Embodiments is applied. This mobile phone set includes a display portion 121 provided in a housing 120 . [0137] When the display portion 121 is touched with a finger or the like, data can be input into the mobile phone. In addition, operations such as making calls and composing mails can be also conducted by touching the display portion 121 with a finger or the like. [0138] For example, as a switching element in the pixel of the display portion 121 , a plurality of the thin film transistors described in the above Embodiments are arranged; thus, the performance of this mobile phone set can be improved. [0139] FIG. 13B shows one example of the television set to which the thin film transistor described in the above Embodiments is applied. In this television set, a display portion 131 is provided in a housing 130 . [0140] For example, as a switching element in the pixel of the display portion 131 , a plurality of the thin film transistors described in the above Embodiments are arranged; thus, the performance of this television set can be improved. [0141] As described above, the thin film transistors described in the above Embodiments are arranged in a display portion of a variety of electric devices; thus, the performance of the electric devices can be improved. EXAMPLE 1 [0142] FIG. 14 shows a photograph of a cross section of a thin film transistor in which the In—Ga—Zn—O-based oxide semiconductor is used. The photograph was taken with a transmission electron microscope (TEM: “H-9000 NAR” manufactured by Hitachi, Ltd.) with the acceleration voltage at 300 kV. [0143] The thin film transistor shown in FIG. 14 was obtained in such a manner that an In—Ga—Zn—O-based oxide semiconductor film of 50 nm in thickness was formed as the oxide semiconductor film 40 , a first heat treatment (650° C., 1 hour) was performed under a nitride atmosphere, a titanium film of 150 nm in thickness was formed as the metal film 70 , and further, a second heat treatment (250° C., 1 hour) was performed under a nitrogen atmosphere. [0144] In FIG. 14 , it was confirmed that the metal oxide film 60 was formed at an interface between the oxide semiconductor film 40 and the metal film 70 . In addition, it was confirmed that the high metal concentration region 50 was formed in the region in the oxide semiconductor film 40 which is in contact with the metal oxide film 60 . Note that, from the results of analysis using a FFTM (fast fourier transform mapping) method, it was found that a crystal having a composition similar to that of indium (In) was formed in the high metal concentration region 50 of this thin film transistor. In the same manner, it was found that a titanium oxide film was formed as the metal oxide film 60 . [0145] This application is based on Japanese Patent Application Serial No. 2009-265409 filed on Nov. 20, 2009 with the Japanese Patent Office, the entire contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference.

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